I’ll have to write up something longer and more detailed eventually, but here’s a quick overview:
For many types of posting, particularly doing so quickly and on-the-fly, I’ll use my mobile phone’s share functionality to send an email to a third party service (like reading.am) which includes the title and URL of a particular piece of content. Then I’ll use IFTTT.com (or Zapier or one of the many other automation solutions) to scrape the RSS from the service’s feed at regular intervals. These are then set to import the RSS data (or even email data depending on the automation service) to my website, typically as a draft. For things that aren’t real-time dependent, I can then go into my site at my leisure, modify any meta data, make any notes (this is also a good thing for review/leanring purposes) and then publish it (or perhaps keep it private if necessary.)

For the past several years I’ve been using Antenna Pod as my podcatcher on Android. I used to use PocketCast, but it only shared custom short URLs and not the episode URL or the media URL the way Antenna Pod does. For audio posts, I most often share the audio file directly from Antenna Pod this way as it’s usually more difficult to extract the media link from a web page if it’s even available, especially since many podcasts hide their media behind third party apps. Embedding the original audio file on my site allows me to provide enclosures for the RSS Feed of my listen posts versus embedding some third party widgets as well.