📖 Read Chapter 1: A Networked Public pages 3-27 of Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest by Zeynep Tufekci

📖 Read Chapter 1: A Networked Public pages 3-27 of Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest by Zeynep Tufekci

Book cover of Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest by Zeynep Tufekci

Chapter 1 was pretty solid. This almost seems to me like it would make a good book for an IndieWeb book club.

Highlights, Quotes, Annotations, & Marginalia

A national public sphere with a uniform national language did not exist in Turkey at the time. Without mass media and a strong national education system, languages exist as dialects that differ in pronunciation, vocabulary, and even grammar, sometimes from town to town.  

What I’m understanding about the text is that it was hard for Turkish to interact with one another since there was no official language and how these girls for enforced to master this one language.—beatrizrocio

I suspect that it wasn’t the case that they had trouble communicating via speech, but that the formal language was more difficult for them. Typically most languages have a “high” (proper) form and a “low” (colloquial) form. Think of it more like the King’s Standard English versus the speech of an illiterate inner-city youth. They can both understand each other, but one could read and understand the New York Times, but the other would have significant trouble.

December 26, 2018 at 12:33PM

Political scientist Benedict Anderson called this phenomenon of unification “imagined communities.”  

December 26, 2018 at 12:35PM

Technologies alter our ability to preserve and circulate ideas and stories, the ways in which we connect and converse, the people with whom we can interact, the things that we can see, and the structures of power that oversee the means of contact.  

December 26, 2018 at 12:37PM

As technologies change, and as they alter the societal architectures of visi-bility, access, and community, they also affect the contours of the public sphere, which in turn affects social norms and political structures.  

December 26, 2018 at 12:40PM

For example, in a society that is solely oral or not very literate, older people (who have more knowledge since knowledge is acquired over time and is kept in one’s mind) have more power relative to young people who cannot simply acquire new learning by reading.  

To a large extent, this is also part of the reason we respect our elders so much today, although this is starting to weaken as older people are increasingly seen as “behind the times” or don’t understand new technologies…

December 26, 2018 at 12:45PM

In her lifetime, my grandmother journeyed from a world confined to her immediate physical community to one where she now carries out video conversations over the internet with her grandchildren on the other side of the world, cheaply enough that we do not think about their cost at all. She found her first train trip to Istanbul as a teenager—something her peers would have done rarely—to be a bewildering experience, but in her later years she flew around the world. Both the public sphere and our imagined communities operate differently now than they did even a few decades ago, let alone a century.  

It’s nice to consider the impact of the technologies around us and this paragraph does a solid job of showing just that in the span of a single generation’s lifetime.

December 26, 2018 at 12:47PM

movements, among other things, are attempts to intervene in the public sphere through collective, coordinated action. A social movement is both a type of (counter)public itself and a claim made to a public that a wrong should be righted or a change should be made.13 Regardless of whether movements are attempt-ing to change people’s minds, a set of policies, or even a government, they strive to reach and intervene in public life, which is centered on the public sphere of their time.  

a solid definition of what a movement is

December 26, 2018 at 12:49PM

Governments and powerful people also expend great efforts to control the public sphere in their own favor because doing so is a key method through which they rule and exercise power.  

December 26, 2018 at 12:49PM

homophily  

December 26, 2018 at 12:57PM

If you cannot find people, you cannot form a community with them  

December 26, 2018 at 01:05PM

The residents’ lack of success in drawing attention and widespread support to their struggle is a scenario that has been repeated the world over for decades in coun-tries led by dictators: rebellions are drowned out through silencing and censorship.  

December 26, 2018 at 04:47PM

In his influential book The Net Delusion and in earlier essays, Morozov argued that “slacktivism” was distracting people from productive activism, and that people who were clicking on political topics online were turning away from other forms of activism for the same cause.  

December 26, 2018 at 04:58PM

Another line of reasoning has been that internet is a minority of the pop-ulation. This is true; even as late as 2009, the internet was limited to a small minority of households in the Middle East.  

December 26, 2018 at 05:05PM

Only a segment of the population needs to be connected digitally to affect the entire environment. In Egypt in 2011, only 25 percent of the population of the country was on-line, with a smaller portion of those on Facebook, but these people still managed to change the wholesale public discussion, including conversa-tions among people who had never been on the site.  

There’s some definite connection to this to network theory of those like Stuart Kaufmann. You don’t need every node to be directly connected to create a robust network, particularly when there are other layers–here interpersonal connections, cellular, etc.

December 26, 2018 at 05:07PM

Two key constituencies for social movements are also early adopters: activists and journalists  

December 26, 2018 at 05:08PM

Ethan Zuckerman calls this the “cute cat theory” of activism and the public sphere. Platforms that have nonpolitical functions can become more politically powerful because it is harder to censor their large num-bers of users who are eager to connect with one another or to share their latest “cute cat” pictures.  

December 26, 2018 at 05:13PM

Social scientists call the person connecting these two otherwise separate clusters a “bridge tie.” Research shows that weak ties are more likely to be bridges between disparate groups.  

December 26, 2018 at 05:18PM

As Ali explained it to me, for him, January 25, 2011, was in many ways an ordinary January 25—officially a “police celebration day,” but traditionally a day of protest. Although he was young, he was a veteran activist. He and a small group of fellow activists gathered each year in Tahrir on January 25 to protest police brutality. January 25, 2011, was not their first January 25 pro-test, and many of them expected something of a repeat of their earlier protests—perhaps a bit larger this year.  

This mirrors the story of the rape that preceded the Rosa Parks protests in Alabama several years prior and helped set the stage for that being successful.
It’s often frequent that bigger protests are staged to take place on dates/times that have historical meaning.

December 26, 2018 at 05:31PM

His weak-tie networks had been politically activated  

This makes me wonder if she’s cited Mark Granovetter or any of similar sociologists yet?
Apparently she did in footnote 32 in chapter 1. Ha!

December 26, 2018 at 05:37PM

or example, it has been repeatedly found that in most emergencies, disasters, and protests, ordinary people are often helpful and altruistic.  

December 26, 2018 at 05:53PM

However, that desire to belong, reflecting what a person perceives to be the views of the majority, is also used by those in power to control large numbers of people, especially if it is paired with heavy punishments for the visible troublemakers who might set a diff erent example to follow. In fact, for many repressive governments, fostering a sense of loneliness among dissidents while making an example of them to scare off everyone else has long been a trusted method of ruling.  

December 26, 2018 at 05:56PM

Social scientists refer to the feeling of imagining oneself to be a lonely minority when in fact there are many people who agree with you, maybe even a majority, as “pluralistic ignorance.”39 Pluralistic ignorance is thinking that one is the only person bored at a class lecture and not knowing that the sentiment is shared, or that dissent and discontent are rare feelings in a country when in fact they are common but remain unspoken.  

December 26, 2018 at 05:57PM

Thanks to a Facebook page, perhaps for the first time in history, an in-ternet user could click yes on an electronic invitation to a revolution.  

December 26, 2018 at 06:00PM

Only a segment of the population needs to be connected digitally  

Don’t forget the power of the “sneakernet”!

December 26, 2018 at 06:59PM

Highlights, Quotes, Annotations, & Marginalia from Linked: The New Science Of Network by Albert-László Barabási

Annotated Linked: The New Science Of Networks by Albert-László Barabási (Perseus Books Group)

Highlights, Quotes, Annotations, & Marginalia

Guide to highlight colors

Yellow–general highlights and highlights which don’t fit under another category below
Orange–Vocabulary word; interesting and/or rare word
Green–Reference to read
Blue–Interesting Quote
Gray–Typography Problem
Red–Example to work through

The First Link: Introduction

…the high barriers to becoming a Christian had to be abolished. Circumcision and the strict food laws had to be relaxed.

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make it easier to create links!

The Second Link: The Random Universe

But when you add enough links such that each node has an average of one link, a miracle happens: A unique giant cluster emerges.

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Random network theory tells us that as the average number of links per node increases beyond the critical one, the number of nodes left out of the giant cluster decreases exponentially.

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If the network is large, despite the links’ completely random placement, almost all nodes will have approximately the same number of links.

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seminal 1959 paper of Erdős and Rényi to bookmark

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“On Random Graphs. I” (PDF). Publicationes Mathematicae. 6: 290–297.

The Third Link: Six Degrees of Separation

In Igy irtok ti, or This is How You Write, Frigyes Karinthy

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But there is one story, entitled “Lancszemek,” or “Chains,” that deserves our attention

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Karinthy’s 1929 insight that people are linked by at most five links was the first published appearance of the concept we know today as “six degrees of separation.”

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He [Stanley Milgram] did not seem to have been aware of the body of work on networks in graph theory and most likely had never heard of Erdős and Rényi. He is known to have been influenced by the work of Ithel de Sole Pool of MIT and Manfred Kochen of IBM, who circulated manuscripts about the small world problem within a group of colleagues for decades without publishing them, because they felt they had never “broken the back of the problem.”

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Think about the small world problem of published research.

We don’t have a social search engine so we may never know the real number with total certainty.

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Facebook has fixed this in the erstwhile. As of 2016 it’s down to 3.57 degrees of separation

social network

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google the n-gram of this word to see it’s incidence over time. How frequent was it when this book was written? It was apparently a thing beginning in the mid 1960’s.

The Fourth Links: Small Worlds

Mark Newman, a physicist at the Santa Fe Institute… had already written several papers on small worlds that are now considered classics.

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Therefore, Watts and Strogatz’s most important discovery is that clustering does not stop at the boundary of social networks.

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To explain the ubiquity of clustering in most real networks, Watts and Strogatz offered an alternative to Erdős and Rényi’s random network model in their 1998 study published in Nature.

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Watts, D. J.; Strogatz, S. H. (1998). “Collective dynamics of ‘small-world’ networks” (PDF). Nature. 393 (6684): 440–442. Bibcode:1998Natur.393..440W. doi:10.1038/30918. PMID 9623998

The Fifth Link: Hubs and Connectors

The most intriguing result of our Web-mapping project was the complete absence of democracy, fairness, and egalitarian values on the Web. We learned that the topology of the Web prevents us from seeing anything but a mere handful of the billion documents out there.

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Do Facebook and Twitter subvert some of this effect? What types of possible solutions could this give to the IndieWeb for social networking models with healthier results?

On the Web, the measure of visibility is the number of links. The more incoming links pointing to your Webpage, the more visible it is. […] Therefore, the liklihood that a typical document links to your Webpage is close to zero.

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The hubs are the strongest argument against the utopian vision of an egalitarian cyberspace. […] In a collective manner, we somehow create hubs, Websites to which everyone links. They are very easy to find, no matter where you are on the Web. Compared to these hubs, the rest of the Web is invisible.

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Every four years the United States inaugurates a new social hub–the president.

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The Sixth Link: The 80/20 Rule

But every time an 80/20 rule truly applies, you can bet that there is a power law behind it. […] Power laws rarely emerge in systems completely dominated bya roll of the dice. Physicists have learned that most often they signal a transition from disorder to order.

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If the disorder to order is the case, then what is the order imposed by earthquakes which apparently work on a power law distribution?

Leo Kadanoff, a physicist at the University of Illinois at Urbana, had a sudden insight: In the vicinity of the critical point we need to stop viewing atoms separately. Rather, they should be considered communities that act in unison. Atoms must be replaced by boxes of atoms such that within each box all atoms behave as one.

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#phase transitions

Kenneth Wilson […] submitted simultaneously on June 2, 1971, and published in November of the same year by Physical Review B, turned statistical physics around. The proposed an elegant and all-encompassing theory of phase transitions. Wilson took the scaling ideas developed by Kadanoff and molded them into a powerful theory called renormalization. The starting point of his approach was scale invariance: He assumed that in the vicinity of the critical point the laws of physics applied in an identical manner at all scales, from single atoms to boxes containing millions of identical atoms acting in unison. By giving rigorous mathematical foundation to scale invariance, his theory spat out power laws each time he approached the critical point, the place where disorder makes room for order.

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The Seventh Link: Rich Get Richer

The random model of Erdős and Rényi rests on two simple and often disregarded assumptions. First, we start with an inventory of nodes. Having all the nodes available from the beginning, we assume that the number of nodes is fixed and remains unchanged throughout the network’s life. Second, all nodes are equivalent. Unable to distinguish between the nodes, we link them randomly to each other. These assumptions were unquestioned in over forty years of network research.

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Both in the Erdős-Rényi and Watts-Strogatz models assumed that we have a fixed number of nodes that are wired together in some clever way. The networks generated by these models are therefore static, meaning that the number of nodes remains unchanged during the network’s life. In contrast, our examples suggested that for real networks the static hypothesis is not appropriate. Instead, we should incorporate growth into our network models.

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It demonstrated, however, that growth alone cannot explain the emergence of power laws.

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They are hubs. The better known they are, the more links point to them. The more links they attract, the easier it is to find them on the Web and so the more familiar we are with them. […] The bottom line is that when deciding where to link on the Web, we follow preferential attachment: When choosing between two pages, one with twice as many links as the other, about twice as many people link to the more connected page. While our individual choices are highly unpredictable, as a group we follow strict patterns.

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The model is very simple, as growth and preferential attachment lead to an algorithm defined by two straightforward rules:
A. Growth: For each given period of time we add a new node to the network. This step underscores the fact that networks are assembled one node at a time.
B. Preferential attachment: We assume that each new node connects to the existing nodes with two links. The probability that it will chose a given node is proportional to the numver of links the chosen node has. That is, given the choice between two nodes, one with twice as many links as the other, it is twice as likely that the new node will connect to the more connected node.

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The how and why remain for each are of application though.

In Hollywood, 94 percent of links are internal, formed when two established actors work together for the first time.

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These shifts in thinking created a set of opposites: static versus growing, random versus scale-free, structure versus evolution.
[…] Does the presence of power laws imply that real networks are the result of a phase transition from disorder to order? The answer we’ve arrived at is simple: Networks are not en route from a random to an ordered state. Neither are they at the edge of randomness and chaos. Rather, the scale-free topology is evidence of organizing principles acting at each stage of the network formation process. There is little mystery here, since growth and preferential attachment can explain the basic features of the networks see in nature. No matter how large and complex a network becomes, as long as preferential attachment and growth are present it will maintain its hub-dominated scale-free topology.

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The Eighth Link: Einstein’s Legacy

The introduction of fitness does not eliminate growth and preferential attachment, the two basic mechanisms governing network evolution. It changes, however, what is considered attractive in a competitive environment. In the scale-free model, we assumed that a node’s attractiveness was determined solely by it’s number of links. In a competitive environment, fitness also plays a role: Nodes with higher fitness are linked to more frequently. A simple way to incorporate fitness into the scal-free model is to assume that preferential attachment is driven by the product of the node’s fitness and the number of links it has. Each new node decides where to link by comparing the fitness connectivity product of all available nodes and linking with a higher probability to those that have a higher product and therefore are more attractive.

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Bianconi’s calculation s first confirmed our suspicion that in the presence of fitness the early bird is not necessarily the winner. Rather, fitness is in the driver’s seat, making or breaking the hubs.

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But there was a indeed a precise mathematical mapping between the fitness model of a Bose gas. According to this mapping, each node in the network corresponds to an energy level in the Bose gas.

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…in some networks, the winner can take all. Just as in a Bose-Einstein condensate all particles crowd into the the lowest energy level, leaving the rest of the energy levels unpopulated, in some networks the fittest node could theoretically grab all the links, leaving none for the rest of the nodes. The winner takes all.

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But even though each system, from the Web to Hollywood, has a unique fitness distribution, Bianconi’s calculation indicated that in terms of topology all networks fall into one of only two possible categories. […] The first category includes all networks in which, despite the fierce competition for links, the scale-free topology survives. These networks display a fit-get-rich behavior, meaning that the fittest node will inevitably grow to beome the biggest hub. The winner’s lead is never significant, however. The largest hub is closely followed by a smaller one, which acquires almost as many links as the fittest node. Ata any moment we have a hierarchy of nodes whose degree distribution follows a power law. In most complex networks, the power laws and the fight for links thus are not antagonistic but can coexist peacefully.

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In […] the second category, the winner takes all, meaning tht the fittest node grabs all the links, leaving very little for the rest of the nodes. Such networks develop a star topology. […] A winner-takes-all network is not scale-free.

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The Ninth Link: Achilles’ Heel

…the western blackout highlighted an often ignored property of complex networks: vulnerability due to interconnectivity

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Yet, if the number of removed nodes reaches a critical point, the system abruptly breaks into tiny unconnected islands.

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Computer simulations we performed on networks generated by the scale-free model indicated that a significant fraction of nodes can be randomly removed from any scale-free network without its breaking apart.

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…percolation theory, the field of physics that developed a set of tools that now are widely used in studies of random networks.

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…they set out to calculate the fraction of nodes that must be removed from an arbitrarily chosen network, random or scale-free, to break it into pieces. On one hand, their calculation accounted for the well-known result that random networks fall apart after a critical number of nodes have been removed. On the other hand, they found that for scale-free networks the critical threshold disapears in cases where the degree exponent is smaller or equal to three.

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Disable a few of the hubs and a scale-free network will fall to pieces in no time.

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If, however, a drug or an illness shuts down the genes encoding the most connected proteins, the cell will not survive.

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Obviously, the likelihood that a local failure will handicap the whole system is much higher if we perturb the most-connected nodes. This was supported by the findings of Duncan Watts, from Columbia University, who investigated a model designed to capture the generic features of cascading failures, such as power outages, and the opposite phenomenon, the cascading popularity of books, movies, and albums, which can be described within the same framework.

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The Tenth Link: Viruses and Fads

If a new product passes the crucial test of the innovators, based on their recommendation, the early adopters will pick it up.

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What, if any, role is played by the social network in the spread of a virus or an innovation?

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In 1954, Elihu Katz, a researcher at the Bureau of Applied Social Research at columbia University, circulated a proposal to study the effect of social ties on behavior.

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When it came to the spread of tetracyclin, the doctors named by three or more other doctors as friends were three times more likely to adopt the new drug than those who had not been named by anybody.

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Hubs, often referred to in marketing as “opinion leaders,” “power users,” or “influencers,” are individuals who communicate with more people about a certain product than does the average person.

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Aiming to explain the disappearance of some fads and viruses and the spread of others, social scientists and epidemiologists developed a very useful tool called the threshold model.

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any relation to Granovetter?

…critical threshold, a quantity determined by the properties of the network in which the innovation spreads.

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For decades, a simple but powerful paradigm dominated our treatment of diffusion problems. If we wanted to estimate the probability that an innovation would spread, we needed only to know it’s spreading rate and the critical threshold it faced. Nobody questioned this paradigm. Recently, however, we have learned that some viruses and innovations are oblivious to it.

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On the Internet, computers are not connected to each other randomly.

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In scale-free networks the epidemic threshold miraculously vanished!

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Hubs are among the first infected thanks to their numerous sexual contacts. Once infected, they quickly infect hundreds of others. If our sex web formed a homogeneous, random, network, AIDS might have died out long ago. The scale-free topology at AIDS’s disposal allowed the virus to spread and persist.

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As we’ve established, hubs play a key role in these processes. Their unique role suggest a bold but cruel solution: As long as resources are finite we should treat only the hubs. That is, when a treatment exists but there is not enough money to offer it to everybody who needs it, we should primarily give it to the hubs. (Pastor-Satorras and Vespignani; and Zoltan Dezso)

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Are we prepared to abandon the less connected patients for the benefit of the population at large?

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The Eleventh Link: The Awakening Internet

They [Michalis Faloutsos, Petros Faloutsos, and Christos Faloutsos] found that the connectivity distribution of the Internet routers follows a power law. In their seminar paper “On Power-Law Relationship of the Internet Topology” they showed that the Internet […] is a scale-free network.

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Routers offering more bandwidth likely have more links as well. […] This simple effect is a possible source of preferential attachment. We do not know for sure whether it is the only one, but preferential attachment is unquestionably present on the Internet.

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After many discussions and tutorials on how computers communicate, a simple but controversial idea emerged: parasitic computing.

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The Twelfth Link: The Fragmented Web

Starting from any page (on the Internet), we can reach only about 24 percent of all documents.

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If you want to go from A to D, you can start from node A, then go to node B, which has a link to node C, which points to D. But you can’t make a round-trip.

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Not necessarily the case with bidirectional webmentions.

[Cass] Sustein fears that by limiting access to conflicting viewpoints, the emerging online universe encourages segregation and social fragmentation. Indeed, the mechanisms behind social and political isolation on the Web are self-reinforcing.

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Looks like we’ve known this for a very long time! Sadly it’s coming to a head in the political space of 2016 onward.

Communities are essential components of human social history. Granovetter’s circles of friends, the elementary building blocks of communities, pointed to this fact. […]

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early indications that Facebook could be a thing…

One reason is that there are no sharp boundaries between various communities. Indeed, the same Website can belong simultaneously to different groups. For example, a physicist’s Webpage might mix links to physics, music, and mountain climbing, combining professional interests with hobbies. In which community should we place such a page? The size of communities also varies a lot. For example, while the community interested in “cryptography” is small and relatively easy to locate, the one consisting of devotees of “English literature” is much harder to identify and fragmented into many subcommunities ranging from Shakespeare enghusiasts to Kurt Vonnegut fans.

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Search for this type of community problem is an NP complete problem. This section may be of interest to Brad Enslen and Kicks Condor. Cross reference research suggested by Gary Flake, Steve Lawrence, and Lee Giles from NEC.

Such differences in the structure of competing communities have important consequences for their ability to market and organize themselves for a common cause.

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He continues to talk about how the pro-life movement is better connected and therefore better equipped to fight against the pro-choice movement.

Code–or software–is the bricks and mortar of cyberspace. The architecture is what we build, using the code as building blocks. The great architects of human history, from Michelangelo to Frank Lloyd Wright, demonstrated that, whereas raw materials are limited, the architectural possibilities are not. Code can curtail behavior, and it does influence architecture. It does not uniquely determine it, however.

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Added on November 3, 2018 at 5:26 PM

Yes, we do have free speech on the Web. Chances are, however, that our voices are too weak to be heard. pages with only a few incoming links are impossible to find by casual browsing. Instead, over and over we are steered toward the hubs. It is tempting to believe that robots can avoid this popularity-driven trap.

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Facebook and Twitter applications? Algorithms help to amplify “unheard” voices to some extent, but gamifying the reading can also get people to read more (crap) than they were reading before because it’s so easy.

Your ability to find my Webpage is determined by one factor only: its position on the Web.

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Facebook takes advantage of this with their algorithm

Thus the Web’s large-scale topology–that is, its true architecture–enforces more severe limitations on our behavior and visibilityon the Web than government or industry could ever achieve by tinkering with the code. Regulations come and go, but the topology and the fundamental natural laws governing it are time invariant. As long as we continue to delegate to the individual the choice of where to link, we will not be able to significantly alter the Web’s large-scale topology, and we will have to live with the consequences.

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hmmm?

After selling Alexa to Amazon.com in 1999

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Brewster Kahle’s Alexa Internet company is apparently the root of the Amazon Alexa?

The Thirteenth Link: The Map of Life

To return to our car analogy, it is…

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Where before? I don’t recall this at all. Did it get removed from the text?

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ref somewhere about here… personalized medicine

After researching the available databases, we settled on a new one, run by the Argonne National Laboratory outside Chicago, nicknamed “What Is There?” which compiled the matabolic network of forty-three diverse organisms.

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…for the vast majority of organisms the ten most-connected molecules are the same. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is almost always the biggest hub, followed closely by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and water.

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A key prediction of the scale-free model is that nodes with a large number of links are those that have been added early to the network. in terms of metabolism this would imply that the most connected molecules should be the oldest ones within the cell. […] Therefore, the first mover advantage seems to pervade the emergence of life as well.

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Comparing the metabolic network of all forty-three organisms, we found that only 4 percent of the molecules appear in all of them.

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Developed by Stanley Fields in 1989, the two-hybrid method offers a relatively rapid semiautomated technique for detecting protein-protein interactions.

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They [the results of work by Oltvai, Jeong, Barabasi, Mason (2000)] demonstrated that the protein interaction network has a scale-free topology.

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…the cell’s scale-free topology is a result of a common mistake cells make while reproducing.

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In short, it is now clear that the number of genes is not proportional to our perceived complexity.

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The Fourteenth Link: Network Economy

We have learned that a sparse network of a few powerful directors controls all major appointments in Fortune 1000 companies; […]

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Regardless of industry and scope, the network behind all twentieth century corporations has the same structure: It is a tree, where the CEO occupies the root and the bifurcating branches represent the increasingly specialized and nonoverlapping tasks of lower-level managers and workers. Responsibility decays as you move down the branches, ending with the drone executors of orders conceived at the roots.

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Only for completely top down , but what about bottom up or middle out?

We have gotten to the point that we can produce anything that we can dream of. The expensive question now is, what should that be?

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It is a fundamental rethinking of how to respond to the new business environment in the postindustrial era, dubbed the information economy.

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This is likely late, but certainly an early instance of “information economy” in popular literature.

Therefore, companies aiming to compete in a fast-moving marketplace are shifting from a static and optimized tree into a dynamic and evolving web, offering a more malleable, flexible command structure.

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While 79 percent of directors serve on only one board, 14 percent serve on two, and about 7 percent serve on three or more.

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Indeed, the number of companies that entered in partnership with exactly k other institutions, representing the number of links they have within the network, followed a power law, the signature of a scale-free topology.

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Makes me wonder if the 2008 economic collapse could have been predicted by “weak” links?

As research, innovation, product development, and marketing become more and more specialized and divorced from each other, we are converging to a network economy in which strategic alliances and partnerships are the means for survival in all industries.

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This is troubling in the current political climate where there is little if any trust or truth being spread around by the leader of the Republican party.

As Walter W. Powell writes in Neither Market nor Hierarchy: Network Forms of Organization, “in markets the standard strategy is to drive the hardest possible bargain on the immediate exchange. In networks, the preferred option is often creating indebtedness and reliance over the long haul.” Therefore, in a network economy, buyers and suppliers are not competitors but partners. The relationship between them is often very long lasting and stable.

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Trump vs. Trump

The stability of these links allows companies to concentrate on their core business. If these partnerships break down, the effects can be severe. Most of the time failures handicap only the partners of the broken link. Occasionally, however, they send ripples through the whole economy. As we will see next, macroeconomic failures can throw entire nations into deep financial disarray, while failures in corporate partnerships can severly damage the jewels of the new economy.

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In some sense this predicts the effects of the 2008 downturn.

outsourcing

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early use of the word?

A me attitude, where the companies immediate financial balance is the only factor, limits network thinking. Not understanding how the actions of one node affect other nodes easily cripples whole segments of the network.

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Hierarchical thinking does not fit a network economy.

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The Last Link: Web Without a Spider

We must help eliminate the need and desire of the nodes to form links to terrorist organizations by offering them a chance to belong to more constructive and meaningful webs.

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And for poverty and gangs as well as immigration.

“Their work has a powerful philosophy: “revelation through concealment.” By hiding the details they allow us to focus entirely on the form. The wrapping sharpens our vision, making us more aware and observant, turning ordinary objects into monumental sculptures and architectural pieces.

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not too dissimilar to the font I saw today for memory improvement

👓 Disconnected, fragmented, or united? a trans-disciplinary review of network science | Applied Network Science | César A. Hidalgo

Read Disconnected, fragmented, or united? a trans-disciplinary review of network science by César A. HidalgoCésar A. Hidalgo (Applied Network Science | SpringerLink)
During decades the study of networks has been divided between the efforts of social scientists and natural scientists, two groups of scholars who often do not see eye to eye. In this review I present an effort to mutually translate the work conducted by scholars from both of these academic fronts hoping to continue to unify what has become a diverging body of literature. I argue that social and natural scientists fail to see eye to eye because they have diverging academic goals. Social scientists focus on explaining how context specific social and economic mechanisms drive the structure of networks and on how networks shape social and economic outcomes. By contrast, natural scientists focus primarily on modeling network characteristics that are independent of context, since their focus is to identify universal characteristics of systems instead of context specific mechanisms. In the following pages I discuss the differences between both of these literatures by summarizing the parallel theories advanced to explain link formation and the applications used by scholars in each field to justify their approach to network science. I conclude by providing an outlook on how these literatures can be further unified.

Highlights, Quotes, Annotations, & Marginalia

Social scientists focus on explaining how context specific social and economic mechanisms drive the structure of networks and on how networks shape social and economic outcomes. By contrast, natural scientists focus primarily on modeling network characteristics that are independent of context, since their focus is to identify universal characteristics of systems instead of context specific mechanisms.  

August 25, 2018 at 10:18PM

Science and Complexity (Weaver 1948); explained the three eras that according to him defined the history of science. These were the era of simplicity, disorganized complexity, and organized complexity. In the eyes of Weaver what separated these three eras was the development of mathematical tools allowing scholars to describe systems of increasing complexity.  

August 25, 2018 at 10:19PM

Problems of disorganized complexity are problems that can be described using averages and distributions, and that do not depend on the identity of the elements involved in a system, or their precise patterns of interactions. A classic example of a problem of disorganized complexity is the statistical mechanics of Ludwig Boltzmann, James-Clerk Maxwell, and Willard Gibbs, which focuses on the properties of gases.  

August 25, 2018 at 10:20PM

Soon after Weaver’s paper, biologists like Francois Jacob (Jacob and Monod 1961), (Jacob et al. 1963) and Stuart Kaufmann (Kauffman 1969), developed the idea of regulatory networks. Mathematicians like Paul Erdos and Alfred Renyi, advanced graph theory (Erdős and Rényi 1960) while Benoit Mandelbrot worked on Fractals (Mandelbrot and Van Ness 1968), (Mandelbrot 1982). Economists like Thomas Schelling (Schelling 1960) and Wasily Leontief (Leontief 1936), (Leontief 1936), respectively explored self-organization and input-output networks. Sociologists, like Harrison White (Lorrain and White 1971) and Mark Granovetter (Granovetter 1985), explored social networks, while psychologists like Stanley Milgram (Travers and Milgram 1969) explored the now famous small world problem.   

Some excellent references
August 25, 2018 at 10:24PM

First, I will focus in these larger groups because reviews that transcend the boundary between the social and natural sciences are rare, but I believe them to be valuable. One such review is Borgatti et al. (2009), which compares the network science of natural and social sciences arriving at a similar conclusion to the one I arrived.  

August 25, 2018 at 10:27PM

Links are the essence of networks. So I will start this review by comparing the mechanisms used by natural and social scientists to explain link formation.  

August 25, 2018 at 10:32PM

When connecting the people that acted in the same movie, natural scientists do not differentiate between people in leading or supporting roles.  

But they should because it’s not often the case that these are relevant unless they are represented by the same agent or agency.
August 25, 2018 at 10:51PM

For instance, in the study of mobile phone networks, the frequency and length of interactions has often been used as measures of link weight (Onnela et al. 2007), (Hidalgo and Rodriguez-Sickert 1008), (Miritello et al. 2011).  

And they probably shouldn’t because typically different levels of people are making these decisions. Studio brass and producers typically have more to say about the lead roles and don’t care as much about the smaller ones which are overseen by casting directors or sometimes the producers. The only person who has oversight of all of them is the director, and even then they may quit caring at some point.
August 25, 2018 at 10:52PM

Social scientists explain link formation through two families of mechanisms; one that finds it roots in sociology and the other one in economics. The sociological approach assumes that link formation is connected to the characteristics of individuals and their context. Chief examples of the sociological approach include what I will call the big three sociological link-formation hypotheses. These are: shared social foci, triadic closure, and homophily.  

August 25, 2018 at 10:55PM

The social foci hypothesis predicts that links are more likely to form among individuals who, for example, are classmates, co-workers, or go to the same gym (they share a social foci). The triadic closure hypothesis predicts that links are more likely to form among individuals that share “friends” or acquaintances. Finally, the homophily hypothesis predicts that links are more likely to form among individuals who share social characteristics, such as tastes, cultural background, or physical appearance (Lazarsfeld and Merton 1954), (McPherson et al. 2001).  

definitions of social foci, triadic closure, and homophily within network science.
August 26, 2018 at 11:39AM

Yet, strategic games look for equilibrium in the formation and dissolution of ties in the context of the game theory advanced first by (Von Neumann et al. 2007), and later by (Nash 1950).  

August 25, 2018 at 10:58PM

Preferential attachment is the idea that connectivity begets connectivity.  

August 25, 2018 at 10:59PM

Preferential attachment is an idea advanced originally by the statisticians John Willis and Udny Yule in (Willis and Yule 1922), but has been rediscovered numerous times during the twentieth century.  

August 25, 2018 at 11:00PM

Rediscoveries of this idea in the twentieth century include the work of (Simon 1955) (who did cite Yule), (Merton 1968), (Price 1976) (who studied citation networks), and (Barabási and Albert 1999), who published the modern reference for this model, which is now widely known as the Barabasi-Albert model.  

August 25, 2018 at 11:01PM

preferential attachment. In the eyes of the social sciences, however, understanding which of all of these hypotheses drives the formation of the network is what one needs to explore.  

For example what drives attachment of political candidates?
August 26, 2018 at 08:15AM

Finally it is worth noting that trust, through the theory of social capital, has been connected with long-term economic growth—even though these results are based on regressions using extremely sparse datasets.  

And this is an example of how Trump is hurting the economy.
August 26, 2018 at 08:33AM

Nevertheless, the evidence suggests that social capital and social institutions are significant predictors of economic growth, after controlling for the effects of human capital and initial levels of income (Knack and Keefer 1997), (Knack 2002).4 So trust is a relevant dimension of social interactions that has been connected to individual dyads, network formation, labor markets, and even economic growth.  

August 26, 2018 at 08:35AM

Social scientist, on the other hand, have focused on what ties are more likely to bring in new information, which are primarily weak ties (Granovetter 1973), and on why weak ties bring new information (because they bridge structural holes (Burt 2001), (Burt 2005)).  

August 26, 2018 at 09:45AM

heterogeneous networks have been found to be effective promoters of the evolution of cooperation, since there are advantages to being a cooperator when you are a hub, and hubs tend to stabilize networks in equilibriums where levels of cooperation are high (Ohtsuki et al. 2006), (Pacheco et al. 2006), (Lieberman et al. 2005), (Santos and Pacheco 2005).  

August 26, 2018 at 09:49AM

These results, however, have also been challenged by human experiments finding no such effect (Gracia-Lázaro et al. 2012). The study of cooperation in networks has also been performed in dynamic settings, where individuals are allowed to cut ties (Wang et al. 2012), promoting cooperation, and are faced with different levels of knowledge about the reputation of peers in their network (Gallo and Yan 2015). Moreover, cooperating behavior has seen to spread when people change the networks where they participate in (Fowler and Christakis 2010).  

Open questions
August 26, 2018 at 09:50AM

References

1.
Hidalgo CA. Disconnected, fragmented, or united? a trans-disciplinary review of network science. ANS. 2016;1(1). doi:10.1007/s41109-016-0010-3

👓 How School Shootings Spread | New Yorker

Read How School Shootings Spread by Malcolm GladwellMalcolm Gladwell (The New Yorker)
An increasingly ritualized form of violence is attracting unexpected perpetrators.

An intriguing article whose theory seems both applicable and timely. It also seems extensible to additional areas, some of which I’ve noted in my annotations.

Highlights, Quotes, & Marginalia

Most previous explanations had focussed on explaining how someone’s beliefs might be altered in the moment.

Knowing a little of what is coming in advance here, I can’t help but thinking: How can this riot theory potentially be used to influence politics and/or political campaigns? It could be particularly effective to get people “riled up” just before a particular election to create a political riot of sorts and thereby influence the outcome. Facebook has done several social experiments with elections in showing that their friends and family voted and thereby affecting other potential voters. When done in a way that targets people of particular political beliefs to increase turn out, one is given a means of drastically influencing elections. In some sense, this is an example of this “Riot Theory”.


“But group interaction was such that none could admit this without loss of status; in our terms, their threshold for stealing cars is low because daring masculine acts bring status, and reluctance to join, once others have, carries the high cost of being labeled a sissy.” You can’t just look at an individual’s norms and motives. You need to look at the group.

This might also be the same case with fraternity shenanigans and even more deplorable actions like gang rapes. Usually there’s one or more sociopaths that start the movement, and then others reluctantly join in.


If a riot evolves as it spreads, starting with the hotheaded rock thrower and ending with the upstanding citizen, then rioters are a profoundly heterogeneous group.


Granovetter’s model suggests that riots are sometimes more than spontaneous outbursts. If they evolve, it means they have depth and length and a history. Granovetter thought that the threshold hypothesis could be used to describe everything from elections to strikes, and even matters as prosaic as how people decide it’s time to leave a party.


The first seven major shooting cases—Loukaitis, Ramsey, Woodham, Carneal, Johnson and Golden, Wurst, and Kinkel—were disconnected and idiosyncratic.

Seven though? In such a short time period? These must have known about prior ones or else perhaps the theory doesn’t hold as much water. Similarly suicide could be added as a contagion that fits into this riot model as well.


That’s what Paton and Larkin mean: the effect of Harris and Klebold’s example was to make it possible for people with far higher thresholds—boys who would ordinarily never think of firing a weapon at their classmates—to join in the riot.


He disapproved of Adam Lanza, because he shot kindergartners at Sandy Hook instead of people his own age: “That’s just pathetic. Have some dignity, damn it.”

This model of a dialectic suggests that the narrative can be shaped, both by the individual reader and each actor. Can it also be shaped by the media? If these mass-murderers are portrayed as pathetic or deranged would that dissuade others from joining their ranks?
gandalf511 on Oct 13, 2015

gandalf511, I like the idea you’ve elaborated here, and it may work to at least some extent. One other hand, some of these kids are already iconoclasts who are marginalized and may not put much value or faith in a mainstream media representation. The tougher needle to thread is how to strike a middle ground that speaks to potential assailants?

👓 How Riots May Help Us Understand School Shooters | NPR

Read How Riots May Help Us Understand School Shooters (NPR.org)
In his new article, The New Yorker's Malcolm Gladwell uses a well-known theory to contrast early school shooters back in the 1990s with shooters today.